Threatened and Endangered Species

Threatened and Endangered Species of the Tennessee River Basin and Southern Appalachian Mountains

This table includes only those species listed as endangered or threatened or proposed for one of these statuses by the federal government. (A species is listed as endangered if it is likely to become extinct throughout all or a major portion of its range, and as threatened if it is likely to become endangered in the near future.) State governments and conservation agencies list many additional species, and many more are in fact in decline, threatened, endangered, or already extinct. Many groups of organisms (lichens, mosses, or arthropods, for example) are underrepresented in this list, simply because few people know or care about them. This table is compiled from several sources; though nearly all the species listed here inhabit (or used to inhabit) our bioregion, a few may occur only in the Tennessee River Basin to the west.

Common Name

Scientific Name

Status

Habitat

MAMMALS

     

Red wolf

Canis rufus

Endangered

Forests, Fields

Eastern cougar

Felis concolor cougar

Endangered

Mountains, wide-ranging

Carolina Northern flying squirrel

Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus

Endangered

Spruce-fir/hardwood ecotone

Virginia Northern flying squirrel

Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus

Endangered

Wide-ranging

Virginia big-eared bat

Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus

Endangered

Caves

Gray bat

Myotis grisescens

Endangered

Caves, rivers, lakes

Indiana bat

Myotis sodalis

Endangered

Caves, riparian areas

BIRDS

     

American peregrine falcon

Falco peregrinis anatum

Endangered

Cliffs, large rivers, reservoirs

Bald Eagle

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Threatened

Lakes, large rivers, wooded shores

Red-cockaded woodpecker

Picoides borealis

Endangered

Mature old-growth pine forests

AMPHIBIANS

     

Cheat Mountain Salamander

Plethodon nettingi

Threatened

High-elevation spruce-fir forest

Shenandoah Salamander

Plethodon shenandoah

Endangered

Rock outcrops and cliffs

FISHES

     

Pygmy sculpin

Cottus pygmaeus

Threatened

Cool streams

Blue shiner

Cyprinella caerulea

Threatened

Clear, cool pools

Spotfin chub

Cyprinella monacha

Threatened

Small rivers, large creeks

Slender chub

Erimystax cahni

Threatened

Small rivers

Slackwater darter

Etheostoma boschungi

Threatened

Small creeks, springs

Duskytail darter

Etheostoma (Catonotus) sp.

Endangered

Small rivers, large creeks

Cherokee Darter

Etheostoma scotti

Threatened

 

Boulder darter

Etheostoma wapiti

Endangered

Small rivers, large creeks

Palezone shiner

Notropis albizonatus

Endangered

Small rivers, large creeks

Smoky madtom

Noturus baileyi

Endangered

Large creeks

Yellowfin madtom

Noturus flavipinnis

Threatened

Small rivers, large creeks

Pygmy madtom

Noturus stanauli

Endangered

Small rivers

Amber darter

Percina antesella

Endangered

Rivers

Goldline darter

Percina aurolineata

Threatened

 

Conasauga logperch

Percina jenkinsi

Endangered

Deep gravel runs, pools

Snail darter

Percina tanasi

Threatened

Large rivers, small rivers

Blackside dace

Phoxinus cumberlandensis

Threatened

Small upland streams

Alabama cavefish

Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni

Endangered

Cave streams

MUSSELS AND CLAMS

     

Appalachian elktoe

Alasmidonta raveneliana

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

Birdwing pearlymussel

Conradilla caelata

Endangered

Small rivers

Fanshell

Cyprogenia stegaria

Endangered

Rivers

Dromedary pearlymussel

Dromus dromas

Endangered

Rivers

Cumberland combshell

Epioblasma brevidens

Proposed endangered

Small rivers

Oyster mussel

Epioblasma capsaeformis

Proposed endangered

Small rivers

Yellow blossom pearlymussel

Epioblasma florentina florentina

Endangered

Large rivers

Green blossom pearlymussel

Epioblasma torulosa

Endangered

Small rivers

Tuberculed blossom pearlymussel

Epioblasma torulosa torulosa

Extirpated

Large rivers

Turgid blossom pearlymussel

Epioblasma turgidula

Endangered

Creeks

Tan riffleshell

Epioblasma walkeri

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

Shiny pigtoe pearlymussel

Fusconaia cor

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

Fine-rayed pigtoe

Fusconaia cuneolus

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

Cracking pearlymussel

Hemistena lata

Endangered

Rivers, large creeks

Pink mucket

Lampsillis abrupta

Endangered

Rivers

Alabama lampmussel

Lampsillis virescens

Endangered

Creeks

Ring pink

Obovaria retusa

Endangered

Rivers

Little-wing pearlymussel

Pegias fabula

Endangered

Creeks

White wartyback

Plethoblasus cicatricosus

Endangered

Large rivers

Orange-foot pimpleback

Plethoblasus cooperianus

Endangered

Large rivers

Clubshell

Pleurobema clava

Endangered

Rivers, large creeks

James spineymussel

Pleurobema collina

Endangered

 

Rough Pigtoe

Pleurobema plenum

Endangered

Rivers

Rough rabbitsfoot

Quadrula cylindrica strigillata

Proposed endangered

Small rivers

Winged mapleleaf

Quadrula fragosa

Extirpated

Small rivers

Cumberland monkeyface

Quadrula intermedia

Endangered

Small rivers

Appalachian monkeyface

Quadrula sparsa

Endangered

Small rivers

Pale lilliput

Toxoplasma cylindrellus

Endangered

Creeks

Purple bean

Villosa perpurpurea

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

Cumberland bean

Villosa trabalis

Endangered

Small rivers, creeks

SNAILS

     

Painted snake coiled forest

Anguispira picta

Threatened

Forested bluffs

Anthony’s river snail

Athearnia anthonyi

Endangered

 

Royal marstonia

Marstonia ogmorhaphe

Endangered

Spring runs

Noonday globe

Mesodon clarki nantahala

Threatened

Cliffs

Virginia fringed mountain snail

Polygyriscus virginicus

Endangered

Alkaline or mafic habitats

Royal snail

Pyrgulopsis ogmoraphe

Endangered

 

Turtuloma livebearing snail

Turtuloma magnifica

Endangered

 

ARTHROPODS

     

Madison cave isopod

Antrolana lira

Threatened

Caves

Spruce-fir moss spider

Microhexura montivaga

Proposed endangered

Spruce-fir forests

Alabama cave shrimp

Palaemonius alabamae

Endangered

Caves

Lee county cave isopod

Lirceus usdagalun

Endangered

Caves

FLOWERING PLANTS

     

Pool sprite

Amphianthus pussilus

Threatened

Rock outcrops, cliffs

Price potato-bean

Apios priceana

Threatened

Hardwood forests, forest edges

Shale barren rock cress

Arabis serotina

Endangered

Rock outcrops, cliffs

Cumberland sandwort

Arenaria cumberlandensis

Endangered

Rock outcrops, cliffs

Virginia roundleaf birch

Betula uber

Threatened

Creek terraces

Small anthered bittercress

Cardamine micranthera

Endangered

Seeps, springs, streamsides

Morefield’s leather flower

Clematis morfieldii

Endangered

Hardwood forests

Alabama leather flower

Clematis socialis

Endangered

Seeps, springs, streamsides

Cumberland rosemary

Conradina verticillata

Threatened

Riverine gravel bars

Smooth coneflower

Echinacea laevigata

Endangered

Alkaline or mafic habitats

Glade spurge

Euphorbia purpurea

Threatened

Rich or swampy woods

Spreading avens

Geum radiatum

Endangered

High-elevation acidic rock outcrops

Roan mountain bluet

Hedyotis purpurea var. montana

Endangered

High-elevation acidic rock outcrops

Eggert sunflower

Helianthus eggertii

Proposed threatened

Hardwood forests

Swamp pink

Helonias bullata

Threatened

Bogs, meadows, edges of meandering streams

Dwarf-flowered heartleaf

Hexastylis naniflora

Threatened

Mixed mesic habitats

Mountain golden heather

Hudsonia montana

Threatened

Rock outcrops, cliffs

Peter’s mountain mallow

Iliamna corei

Endangered

Rock outcrops, cliffs

Small whirled pogonia

Isotria medeoloides

Threatened

Hardwood forests

Heller’s blazing star

Liatris Helleri

Threatened

High-elevation balds

Morh’s Barbara buttons

Marshallia mohrii

Threatened

Marshes, wet meadows

Ruth golden aster

Pityopsis ruthii

Endangered

Boulders in rivers

Eastern prarie fringed orchid

Plantanthera leucophaea

Threatened

Fen or pond wetlands

Harperella

Ptilimnium nodosum

Endangered

Gravel bars, rocks in rivers

Bunched Arrowhead

Saggitaria fasciculata

Endangered

Non-forested seepage areas

Kral’s water-plantain

Saggitaria secundifolia

Threatened

Gravel bars, rocks in rivers

Green pitcher plant

Sarracenia oerophila

Endangered

Bogs, wet meadows, moist woodlands

Mountain sweet pitcher plant

Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii

Endangered

Mountain bogs and streamsides

Northeastern (barbed) bullrush

Scripus ancistrochaetus

Endangered

Fen or pond wetlands

Mountain (large-flowered) skullcap

Scutellaria montana

Endangered

Hardwood, mixed forests

White irisette

Sisyrinchium dichotomum

Endangered

Alkaline or mafic habitats

Blue ridge goldenrod

Solidago Spithamaea

Threatened

Acidic, sandy balds

Virginia spiraea

Spiraea virginiana

Threatened

Habitat generalist

Persistent trillium

Trillium persistens

Endangered

Mixed mesic habitats

Tennessee yellow-eyed grass

Xyris tennesseensis

Endangered

Forested seeps

FERNS

     

American harts-tongue

Phyllitis scolopendrium var. americanum

Threatened

Cave, sinkhole mouths

LICHENS

     

Rock gnome lichen

Gymnoderma lineare

Proposed endangered

High-elevation cliffs

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Species or Subspecies That Still Inhabited The Upper Tennessee Valley in 1800 but Are Now Extinct

(This list includes only animals known to be extinct, not extirpated species, such as the grey wolf or eastern cougar, which still exist elsewhere, or species merely listed as endangered that may in fact already be extinct.)

Eastern (woodland) bison

Eastern Elk

Passenger Pigeon

Cariolina Parakeet

Bachman’s Warbler

Harelip (rabbit-mouth) sucker